PCOS (Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome) or PCOD (Polycystic Ovarian Disease) has swept the globe of women. It is currently a big problem for a large number of young girls. PCOD is a disease that affects a large number of young adults since it hits at a young age. This is a prevalent endocrine condition with no known cause that affects 5-10% of reproductive-age women. PCOD affects people of all ages, ranging from 18 to 45 years old. Young people must comprehend development, as well as the causes and long-term consequences. Multiple tiny cysts in the ovaries are a symptom of PCOD. It enlarges the ovary and causes an overproduction of androgen and oestrogen hormones, resulting in a variety of physiological problems. 

What causes PCOD/PCOS?  And what are the symptoms? 

PCOD’s cause is currently unknown. However, there is evidence of a link between PCOD and low-grade inflammation, excess insulin, excessive production of male hormones (Hyperandrogenism), and heredity. PCOD is also influenced by variables such as early menarche, an unhealthy lifestyle, and pollution.  

Watch out for the following common symptoms of Polycystic Ovarian Disorder:

  • Irregular periods, occurring every 2 to 3 months (amenorrhea)
  • Heavy bleeding (Menorrhagia)
  • Unusual body and facial hair growth (hirsutism)
  • Stubborn acne that refuses to heal with the usual treatments. This is due to excess peripheral androgen.
  • Uncontrolled weight gain around the waist area especially
  • Pigmentation or darkening of the skin around the neck region (Acanthosis nigricans)
  • Infertility
  • Male-pattern baldness
  • Headaches

One or more of these symptoms may be present. 

Even if a person is slim and has clear skin, they can still have PCOD. This is because it is an endocrine condition that affects numerous body systems. Insulin Resistance and hyperinsulinemia, on the other hand, are the disease’s major pathologies. Insulin is a hormone that controls blood sugar levels in the body. Insulin resistance is defined as a cell’s failure to respond to insulin’s function in moving glucose (sugar) from the bloodstream into muscle and other tissues. As a result, the pancreas generates extra insulin to battle elevated sugar levels.

PCOD that isn’t under control can cause a slew of issues, including infertility and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Patients with PCOS who become pregnant are more likely to experience perinatal problems such as gestational diabetes and pre-eclampsia. They also have a higher long-term risk of endometrial cancer. Increased cholesterol levels, high blood pressure, and potentially breast cancer are some of the other concerns. 

The cure for PCOD has yet to be discovered. The condition can be controlled by altering one’s lifestyle. A multidisciplinary strategy involving a dietician, gynaecologist, endocrinologist, dermatologist, and infertility expert is required. The greatest strategy to control and manage PCOD is to maintain a healthy weight. Even a 5% weight loss can make a significant difference in the treatment of the disease. As a result, PCOD patients must exercise regularly and eat a nutritious diet. Sugars and carbohydrates should be limited in the diet. Patients with PCOD should consume a lot of protein and eat a lot of fibre.

PCOS/PCOD is manageable but has no cure. Daily exercise and healthy food are key